Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) – A leading cause of blindness in older people is a condition called age-related macular degeneration. The macula is located in the center of the retina (back of the eye) and is responsible for the sharp, central vision needed to see straight ahead. The cause of AMD is not known. It is believed that cumulative exposure of the eye to UV and blue light throughout life may contribute to the formation and progress of the disease. It is, therefore, our strongest recommendation that all patients wear good UV protective sunglasses when they are exposed to the sun .
Astigmatism – is asymmetric steepening of the cornea of the natural lens causes light to be focused unevenly, which is the main optical problem in astigmatism. To individuals with uncorrected astigmatism, images may look blurry or shadowed. Astigmatism can accompany any form of refractive error and is very common.
Myopia (Nearsighted) – individuals typically have problems seeing well at a distance and are forced to wear glasses or contact lenses. The nearsighted eye is usually longer than a normal eye, and its cornea may also be steeper. Therefore, when light passes through the cornea and lens, it is focused in front of the retina. This will make distant images appear blurred.
Hyperopia (Farsighted) – individuals typically develop problems reading up close before the age of 40. The farsighted eye is usually slightly shorter than a normal eye and may have a flatter cornea. Thus, the light of distant objects focuses behind the retina unless the natural lens can compensate fully. Near objects require even greater focusing power to be seen clearly and therefore, blur more easily.
Presbyopia – is a condition that typically becomes noticeable for most people around age 45. In children and young adults, the lens inside the eye can easily focus on distant and near objects. With age, the lens loses its ability to focus adequately. Although presbyopia is not completely understood, it is thought that the lens and its supporting structures lose the ability to make the lens longer during close vision effort. To compensate, affected individuals usually find that holding reading material further away makes the image clearer. Ultimately, aids such as reading glasses are typically needed by the mid-forties.
Blepharitis – is an inflammation of the eyelids in which they become red, irritated and itchy and dandruff-like scales form on the eyelashes. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacteria or a skin condition, such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. It affects people of all ages. Although uncomfortable, blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight.
Cataract – a cataract is a clouding of the eye’s lens. The vast majority of cataracts are related to age. Most people do not even realize they have a cataract, as cataracts grow very slowly and may not impede vision early on. When the cataract has become so dense that it compromises the patient’s quality of life, the patient and ophthalmologist will discuss the appropriate time to remove it. Many times a change in eyeglasses and or more lighting may be all that is required for better vision. At times surgical intervention is necessary.
Dry eyes – are caused by either a lack of tear volume or a problem with tear consistency. Tears are necessary for the normal lubrication of your eyes and to wash away particles and foreign bodies. In addition, a smooth tear surface is responsible for precise bending the light rays thereby providing good vision. If you have dry eyes, you may feel a burning, scratching, or a stinging sensation. You may also have strained or tired eyes after reading even for short periods of time.
Diabetic Retinopathy – is a condition that occurs in people who have diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious sight-threatening complication of diabetes.
Conjunctivitis (pink eye) – is an irritation or inflammation of the conjunctiva, which covers the white part of the eyeball. It can be caused by allergies or a bacterial or viral infection. Conjunctivitis can be extremely contagious, and is spread by contact with eye secretions from someone who is infected. Symptoms include redness, itching, and tearing of the eyes. It can also lead to discharge or crusting around the eyes.
Keratoconus – This disorder–a progressive thinning of the cornea–is the most common corneal dystrophy in the U.S., affecting one in every 2000 Americans. Keratoconus arises when the middle of the cornea thins and gradually bulges outward, forming a rounded cone shape. This abnormal curvature changes the cornea’s refractive power, producing moderate to severe distortion (astigmatism) and blurriness (nearsightedness) of vision. Keratoconus may also cause swelling and a sight-impairing scarring of the tissue.
Glaucoma – is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, which is vital to good vision. This damage is often caused by an abnormally high pressure in your eye. The most common form of glaucoma has no warning signs. The effect is so gradual that you may not notice a change in vision until the condition is at an advanced stage. Vision loss due to glaucoma can’t be recovered. So it’s important to have regular eye exams that include measurements of your eye pressure. If glaucoma is recognized early, vision loss can be slowed or prevented. If you have the condition, you’ll generally need treatment for the rest of your life.
Ocular Allergies – affecting the eye are fairly common usually related to pollen symptoms can include redness, itching, tearing, burning, stinging, and watery discharge.
Retinal Detachment – the retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue that lines the inside of the eye and sends visual messages through the optic nerve to the brain. When the retina detaches, it is lifted or pulled from its normal position. If not promptly treated, retinal detachment can cause permanent vision loss. In some cases, there may be small areas of the retina that are torn. These areas, called retinal tears or retinal breaks, can lead to retinal detachment.
Digital eye strain – is the physical discomfort felt after two or more hours in front of a digital screen and is associated with the close to mid-range distance of digital screens, including desktop and laptop computers, tablets, e-readers, and smartphones.